API Reference#
For an overview of all the main functions in one notebook, see the LetsPlot cheatbook.
Configuring#
Initialize the library and its options. 
Plotting#
A class of the initial plot object. 
Geometries#
Standard Geometries#
Draw points defined by an x and y coordinate, as for a scatter plot. 

Connect observations in the order, how they appear in the data. 

Connect points in the order of the variable on the x axis. 

Add a smoothed conditional mean. 

Display a bar chart which makes the height of the bar proportional to the number of observed variable values, mapped to x axis. 

Sum unique values. 

Draw pie chart. 

Draw lollipop chart. 

Display a 1d distribution by dividing variable mapped to x axis into bins and counting the number of observations in each bin. 

Dotplot represents individual observations in a batch of data with circular dots. 

Apply a rectangular grid to the plane, count observations in each cell (bin) of the grid, and map the count to the fill color of the cell (tile). 

Display rectangles with x, y values mapped to the center of the tile. 

Display rectangles with x, y values mapped to the center of the tile. 

Display error bars defined by the upper and lower values. 

Display bars with horizontal median line. 

Display a line range defined by an upper and lower value. 

Add a vertical line defined by upper and lower value with midpoint at y location. 

Display contours of a 3d surface in 2d. 

Fill contours of a 3d surface in 2d. 

Display a filled closed path defined by the vertex coordinates of individual polygons. 

Display polygons from a reference map. 

Add a straight line with specified slope and intercept to the plot. 

Add a straight horizontal line to the plot. 

Add a straight vertical line to the plot. 

Add a straight vertical or horizontal band to the plot. 

Display the distribution of data based on a five number summary ("minimum", first quartile (Q1), median, third quartile (Q3), and "maximum"), and "outlying" points individually. 

A violin plot is a mirrored density plot with an additional grouping as for a boxplot. 

Plot the sum of the y and height aesthetics versus x. 

Dotplot represents individual observations in a batch of data with circular dots. 

Display a y interval defined by ymin and ymax. 

Display the development of quantitative values over an interval. 

Display kernel density estimate, which is a smoothed version of the histogram. 

Display density function contour. 

Fill density function contour. 

Display jittered points, especially for discrete plots or dense plots. 

Display a line chart which makes the y value proportional to the number of observed variable values, mapped to x axis. 

Connect observations in the order in which they appear in the data by stairs. 

Display an axisaligned rectangle defined by two corners. 

Draw a straight line segment between two points. 

Draw a curved line. 

Draw a straight line segment with given length and angle from the starting point. 

Add a text directly to the plot. 

Add a text directly to the plot with a rectangle behind the text. 

Display quantilequantile plot. 

Display quantilequantile plot. 

Display quantilequantile fitting line. 

Display quantilequantile fitting line. 

Compute and draw a function. 
Additional Geometries#
Display image specified by ndarray with shape. 

Display an interactive map. 
Stats#
Sum unique values. 

Display the aggregated values of a single continuous variable grouped along the x axis. 

Display a distribution by dividing variable mapped to x axis into bins and applying aggregation functions to each bin. 

Display the empirical cumulative distribution function. 
Extras#
Describe arrows to add to a line. 
The function converts a column to a discrete scale and allows you to specify the order of its values. 
Configure annotations (for pie and bar charts). 
Facets#
Split data by one or two faceting variables. 

Split data by one or more faceting variables. 
Scales#
Position Scales#
Discrete position scale x. 

Discrete position scale y. 

Reversed discrete position scale x. 

Reversed discrete position scale y. 

Continuous position scale x. 

Continuous position scale y. 

Continuous position scale x where trans='log10'. 

Continuous position scales y where trans='log10'. 

Continuous position scale x where trans='log2'. 

Continuous position scales y where trans='log2'. 

Continuous position scale x where trans='reverse'. 

Continuous position scale y where trans='reverse'. 
Color Scales#
Create your own discrete scale for color aesthetic. 

Define smooth color gradient between two colors for color aesthetic. 

Color scale for color aesthetic and continuous data. 

Define diverging color gradient for color aesthetic. 

Define smooth color gradient between multiple colors for color aesthetic. 

Qualitative color scale with evenly spaced hues for color aesthetic. 

Color scale for color aesthetic and discrete data. 

Sequential grey color scale for color aesthetic. 

Sequential, diverging and qualitative color scales from colorbrewer2.org for color aesthetic. 

The viridis color maps are designed to be perceptuallyuniform, both in regular form and also when converted to blackandwhite. 

Create a scale for the 'color' aesthetic using matplotlib colormap. 
Fill Scales#
Create your own discrete scale for fill aesthetic. 

Define smooth color gradient between two colors for fill aesthetic. 

Color scale for fill aesthetic and continuous data. 

Define diverging color gradient for fill aesthetic. 

Define smooth color gradient between multiple colors for fill aesthetic. 

Qualitative color scale with evenly spaced hues for fill aesthetic. 

Color scale for fill aesthetic and discrete data. 

Sequential grey color scale for fill aesthetic. 

Sequential, diverging and qualitative color scales from colorbrewer2.org for fill aesthetic. 

The viridis color maps are designed to be perceptuallyuniform, both in regular form and also when converted to blackandwhite. 

Create a scale for the 'fill' aesthetic using matplotlib colormap. 
Flexible Color Scales#
Create your own discrete scale for the specified aesthetics. 

Define smooth color gradient between two colors for the specified aesthetics. 

General purpose scale for continuous data. 

Define diverging color gradient for the specified aesthetics. 

Define smooth color gradient between multiple colors for the specified aesthetics. 

Qualitative color scale with evenly spaced hues for the specified aesthetics. 

General purpose scale for discrete data. 

Sequential grey color scale for the specified aesthetics. 

Sequential, diverging and qualitative color scales from colorbrewer2.org for the specified aesthetics. 

The viridis color maps are designed to be perceptuallyuniform, both in regular form and also when converted to blackandwhite. 

Create a scale for colorrelated aesthetic using matplotlib colormap. 
Shape Scales#
Scale for shapes. 

Create your own discrete scale for shape aesthetic. 
Size Scales#
Create your own discrete scale for size aesthetic. 

Scale for size. 

Continuous scale for size that maps 0 to 0. 

Scale for linewidth. 

Scale for stroke. 
Alpha Scales#
Create your own discrete scale for alpha (transparency) aesthetic. 

Scale for alpha. 
Linetype Scales#
Create your own discrete scale for line type aesthetic. 
Datetime Scales#
Position scale x for date/time data. 

Position scale y for date/time data. 

Position scale x for data representing "time delta" values expressed in milliseconds. 

Position scale y for data representing "time delta" values expressed in milliseconds. 
Identity Scales#
Use this scale when your data has already been scaled. 

Use this scale when your data has already been scaled. 

Use this scale when your data has already been scaled. 

Use this scale when your data has already been scaled. 

Use this scale when your data has already been scaled. 

Use this scale when your data has already been scaled. 

Use this scale when your data has already been scaled. 

Use this scale when your data has already been scaled. 

Use this scale when your data has already been scaled. 
Scale Limits#
Scale Guides#
Legend guide. 

Continuous color bar guide. 

Set guides for each scale. 

Configure custom legend. 
Positions#
Adjust position by dodging overlaps to the side. 

Adjust position by dodging overlaps to the side. 

Adjust position by assigning random noise to points. 

Adjust position by nudging a given offset. 

This is primarily used for aligning points generated through geom_point() with dodged boxplots (e.g., a geom_boxplot() with a fill aesthetic supplied). 

Adjust position by stacking overlapping objects on top of each other and standardise each stack to have constant height. 

Adjust position by stacking overlapping objects on top of each other. 
Coordinate Systems#
The Cartesian coordinate system is the most familiar and common type of coordinate system. 

A fixed scale coordinate system forces a specified ratio between the physical representations of data units on the axes. 

Polar coordinate system. 

Project a portion of the earth, which is approximately spherical, onto a flat 2D plane. 

Flip axis of default coordinate system so that horizontal axis becomes vertical and vice versa. 
Theme#
Base#
Use theme() to modify individual components of a theme, allowing you to control all nondata components of the plot. 

Specify how nondata components of the plot are drawn. 

Specify how nondata components of the plot are drawn. 

Specify how nondata components of the plot are drawn. 

Specify how nondata components of the plot are drawn. 

Specify new values for the named colors. 

Function margin() is deprecated. 

Specify overall size of plot. 
Predefined Themes#
Basic settings are applied. 

A completely blank (or "void") background theme: no borders, axes, or gridlines. 

Grey lines on white background with dark grey plot border. 

Dark grey axes and no gridlines. 

Grey background and white gridlines. 

Light grey lines of various widths on white background. 

A minimalistic theme without axes lines. 

Default theme similar to theme_minimal() but with x axis line and only major grid lines. 
Flavors#
Darcula color scheme. 

High contrast dark color scheme. 

High contrast light color scheme. 

Solarized dark color scheme. 

Solarized light color scheme. 
Labels#
Tooltips#
Configure tooltips. 
Font Features#
Adjust estimated width of text labels on plot. 

Specify properties of a particular fontfamily to adjust estimated width of text labels on plot. 
Sampling#
Return a subset of randomly selected items. 

Randomly sample from each stratum (subgroup). 

'Pick' sampling. 

Return a subset where items are selected at a regular interval. 

Return a subset of randomly selected groups. 

Return a subset where groups are selected at a regular interval. 

Simplify a polyline using the VisvalingamWhyatt algorithm. 

Simplify a polyline using the DouglasPeucker algorithm. 
Bistro Module#
Display a set of images in a grid. 
This class is intended to build correlation matrix plot. 
Produce a QQ plot (quantilequantile plot). 
Produce a joint plot that contains bivariate and univariate graphs at the same time. 
Produce a residual plot that shows the difference between the observed response and the fitted response values. 
A waterfall plot shows the cumulative effect of sequentially introduced positive or negative values. 
Geospatial#
Do not use this class explicitly. 

Create a NamesGeocoder. 

Create a NamesGeocoder object for cities. 

Create a NamesGeocoder object for counties. 

Create a NamesGeocoder object for states. 

Create a NamesGeocoder object for countries. 

Calculate the distance between two points. 
Make raster tiles config. 

Make vector tiles config. 

Make solid color tiles config. 
Default vector tiles. 

Vector tiles, light theme. 

Vector tiles, dark theme. 

Vector tiles, BW theme. 

Blank tiles. 

OpenStreetMap's standard tile layer. 

OpenTopoMap's tile layer. 

CARTO tiles, positron theme. 

CARTO tiles, positron theme. 

CARTO tiles, positron (no labels) theme. 

CARTO tiles, positron (no labels) theme. 

CARTO tiles, dark matter (no labels) theme. 

CARTO tiles, dark matter (no labels) theme. 

CARTO tiles, voyager theme. 

CARTO tiles, voyager theme. 

CARTO tiles, midnight commander theme. 

CARTO tiles, midnight commander theme. 

CARTO tiles, antique theme. 

CARTO tiles, antique theme. 

CARTO tiles, flat blue theme. 

CARTO tiles, flat blue theme. 

NASA tiles, CityLights 2012 theme. 

NASA tiles, greyscale shaded relief (30m) theme. 

NASA tiles, color shaded relief (30m) theme. 

NASA tiles, Terra TrueColor theme. 